DIFFERENT NITRATE AND AMMONIUM LEVELS MEDIA ON CHANGES OF NITROGEN ASSIMILATION ENZYMES IN RICE
Keywords:nitrate reductase, glutamine synthase, glutamate synthase, nitrate, ammonium
Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient for the growth and development of rice plants, required in large quantity and often limiting factor of rice yields. The research was to understand the different sources and levels of nitrogen in rice plant on the activity of N assimilation enzymes, including nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthase (GS) content, glutamate synthase (Gogat) content, content, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) content on the leaves. Paddy (Ciherang variety) was grown in sand media containing Hoagland solution with different sources (ammonium and nitrate) and levels (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 mM) of nitrogen. Nitrogen assimilation was observed from leaves at one month of age. The NR activity increased on both Nitrogen sources, it was a higher activity in media contained nitrate. Also, the activity of GS showed higher in media contains nitrate, but its activity was decreased after application 1.6 mM of nitrate and 3.2 mM of ammonium. Western blot analysis of GS1 and GS2 showed that the band pattern of protein was similar to these enzyme activities. Nitrate content in leaves gradually increased in both sources of nitrogen and higher than 3.2 mM ammonium application caused an increase in ammonium content in leaves, but the nitrate content decreased. This research resulted that the available source of N for rice was in nitrate form, easily by the rice plants during the growth stage.
Last Year PDF Downloads
D. Wang, Z. Xu, J. Zhao, Y. Wang, and Z. Yu, “Excessive nitrogen application decreases grain yield and increases nitrogen loss in a wheat–soil system,” http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2010.534108, 2011, doi: 10.1080/09064710.2010.534108.
A. Bandaogo, F. Bidjokazo, S. Youl, E. Safo, R. Abaidoo, and O. Andrews, “Effect of fertilizer deep placement with urea supergranule on nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated rice in Sourou Valley (Burkina Faso),” Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosystems, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 79–89, May 2015, doi: 10.1007/s10705-014-9653-6.
C. Xiaochuang et al., “Glutamate dehydrogenase mediated amino acid metabolism after ammonium uptake enhances rice growth under aeration condition,” Plant Cell Rep., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 363–379, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.1007/s00299-019-02496-w.
A. Chamizo-Ampudia, E. Sanz-Luque, A. Llamas, A. Galvan, and E. Fernandez, “Nitrate Reductase Regulates Plant Nitric Oxide Homeostasis,” Trends Plant Sci., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 163–174, Feb. 2017, doi: 10.1016/J.TPLANTS.2016.12.001.
D. Nigro et al., “Allelic variation for GS and GOGAT genes in a tetraploid wheat collection,” vol. 126, pp. 121–126, 2014.
H. S.- Phytochemistry and undefined 1980, “Regulation of nitrate reductase activity in higher plants,” Elsevier, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0031942280851004.
M. Betti et al., “Glutamine Synthetase in Legumes: Recent Advances in Enzyme Structure and Functional Genomics,” Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 7994–8024, Jun. 2012, doi: 10.3390/ijms13077994.
J. V. Cullimore, M. Lara, P. J. Lea, and B. J. Miflin, “Purification and properties of two forms of glutamine synthetase from the plant fraction of Phaseolus root nodules,” Planta, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 245–253, Apr. 1983, doi: 10.1007/BF00405189.
B. J. Shelp, K. Sieciechowicz, R. J. Ireland, and K. W. Joy, “Determination of urea and ammonia in leaf extracts: application to ureide metabolism,” Can. J. Bot., vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1135–1140, Jun. 1985, doi: 10.1139/b85-156.
D. A. Cataldo, M. H. Haroon, L. E. Schrader, and V. L. Youngs, “Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid,” Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 71–80, Jan. 1975, doi: 10.1080/00103627509366547.
M. Akagawa, T. Handoyo, T. Ishii, S. Kumazawa, N. Morita, and K. Suyama, “Proteomic Analysis of Wheat Flour Allergens,” ACS Publ., vol. 55, no. 17, pp. 6863–6870, Aug. 2007, doi: 10.1021/jf070843a.
Y.-H. Fu and G. A. Marzluf, “Metabolic Control and Autogenous Regulation of nit-3, the Nitrate Reductase Structural Gene of Neurospora crassa Downloaded from,” 1988. Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://jb.asm.org/.
C. Yun, F. Xiao-Rong, S. Shu-Bin, X. G.-H.- Pedosphere, and undefined 2008, “Effect of nitrate on activities and transcript levels of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in rice,” Elsevier, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1002016008600612.
S. Woodin, J. L.-N. Phytologist, and undefined 1987, “The Effects Of Nitrate, Ammonium And Temperature On Nitrate Reductase Activity In Sphagnum Species,” Wiley Online Libr., Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1987.tb00114.x.
H. Sun et al., “Nitric oxide generated by nitrate reductase increases nitrogen uptake capacity by inducing lateral root formation and inorganic nitrogen uptake under partial nitrate nutrition in rice,” J. Exp. Bot., vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 2449–2459, May 2015, doi: 10.1093/jxb/erv030.
N. Datta, M. Pal, U. Roy, R. Mitra, and A. Pradhan, “World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research,” Infection, vol. 13, no. December, p. 15, 2014.
J. M. Lira et al., “Potassium Nitrate Priming Affects the Activity of Nitrate Reductase and Antioxidant Enzymes in Tomato Germination Miroslava Rakocevic Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Potassium Nitrate Priming Affects the Activity of Nitrate Reductase and Antioxidant Enzymes in Tomato Germination,” Artic. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 6, no. 2, 2014, doi: 10.5539/jas.v6n2p72.
S. Kataria, M. Jain, D. K. Tripathi, and V. P. Singh, “Involvement of nitrate reductase‐dependent nitric oxide production in magnetopriming‐induced salt tolerance in soybean,” Physiol. Plant., vol. 168, no. 2, p. ppl.13031, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1111/ppl.13031.
S. F. Undurraga, C. Ibarra-Henríquez, I. Fredes, J. M. Álvarez, and R. A. Gutiérrez, “Nitrate signaling and early responses in Arabidopsis roots,” J. Exp. Bot., vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 2541–2551, May 2017, doi: 10.1093/JXB/ERX041.
C. Dzuibany, S. Haupt, H. Fock, K. Biehler, A. Migge, and T. W. Becker, “Regulation of nitrate reductase transcript levels by glutamine accumulating in the leaves of a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase-deficient gluS mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, and by glutamine provided via the roots,” Planta, vol. 206, no. 4, pp. 515–522, Nov. 1998, doi: 10.1007/s004250050428.
M. Aslam, R. L. Travis, D. W. Rains, and R. C. Huffaker, “Differential effect of ammonium on the induction of nitrate and nitrite reductase activities in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings,” Physiol. Plant., vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 612–619, Nov. 1997, doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1997.tb01045.x.
R. Tischner, “Nitrate uptake and reduction in higher and lower plants,” Plant, Cell and Environment, vol. 23, no. 10. pp. 1005–1024, 2000, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00595.x.
E. Pinto, F. Fidalgo, J. Teixeira, A. Aguiar, I. F.-P. science, and undefined 2014, “Influence of the temporal and spatial variation of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and soil composition in the N species content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa),” Elsevier, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945214000119.
X. Li, A. O.-P. Science, and undefined 1995, “The effect of light on the nitrate and nitrite reductases in Zea mays,” Elsevier, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016894529504159R.
M. A. Hossain, M. K. Uddin, M. R. Ismail, and M. Ashrafuzzaman, “Responses of Glutamine Synthetase-Glutamate Synthase Cycle Enzymes in Tomato Leaves under Salinity Stress,” Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 509–515, 2012.
A. Goodall, P. Kumar, A. T.-P. and C. Physiology, and undefined 2013, “Identification and Expression Analyses of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.),” academic.oup.com, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://academic.oup.com/pcp/article-abstract/54/4/492/1829487.
S. J. Leghari et al., “Role of nitrogen for plant growth and development: a review,” Adv. Environ. Biol., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 209–219, Sep. 2016, Accessed: Jan. 25, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&issn=19950756&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA472372583&sid=googleScholar&linkaccess=fulltext.
A. Bao et al., “The stable level of glutamine synthetase 2 plays an important role in rice growth and in carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance,” mdpi.com, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/6/12713/htm.
C. Masclaux-Daubresse, … F. D.-V.-A. of, and undefined 2010, “Nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization in plants: challenges for sustainable and productive agriculture,” academic.oup.com, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://academic.oup.com/aob/article-abstract/105/7/1141/148741.
S. Bernard, D. H.-N. Phytologist, and undefined 2009, “The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling,” Wiley Online Libr., Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02823.x.
M. Tabuchi, T. Abiko, T. Y.-J. of experimental botany, and undefined 2007, “Assimilation of ammonium ions and reutilization of nitrogen in rice (Oryza sativa L.),” academic.oup.com, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article-abstract/58/9/2319/542276.
T. Yamaya, M. K.-J. of E. Botany, and undefined 2014, “Evidence supporting distinct functions of three cytosolic glutamine synthetases and two NADH-glutamate synthases in rice,” academic.oup.com, Accessed: Jan. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article-abstract/65/19/5519/546558.
B. Prinsi and L. Espen, “Mineral nitrogen sources differently affect root glutamine synthetase isoforms and amino acid balance among organs in maize,” BMC Plant Biol., vol. 15, no. 1, Apr. 2015, doi: 10.1186/s12870-015-0482-9.
A. Suzuki, J. P. Jacqout, F. Martin, and P. Gadal, “Ligh-dependent activity of glutamate synthase in vitro,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 65–71, May 1982, doi: 10.1016/0006-291X(82)92058-7.
H. B. Hamat, A. Kleinhofs, and R. L. Warner, “Nitrate reductase induction and molecular characterization in rice (Oryza sativa L.),” MGG Mol. Gen. Genet., vol. 218, no. 1, pp. 93–98, Jul. 1989, doi: 10.1007/BF00330570.
How to Cite
Write scientific names with Italic fonts:
Copyright (c) 2021 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a License Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
d. Authors hold the copyright and retain publishing right of articles without restrictions.