COMPARATIVE STUDY of SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG of COVID-19 SYMPTOMS and NON COVID-19 SYMPTOMS IN-DIVIDUALS
Keywords:Biochemical parameters, biochemical markers, COVID 19 symptoms, healthy control, Serological tests
Nowadays in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, the number of patients have common symptoms with COVID-19 infection rapidly increased. 123 patients which they had common symptoms with COVID-19 and 94 healthy control individuals (non-COVID-19) were subjected for quantitative analysis for each one of the following biochemical parameters, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. We analyze clinical features and compared the differences between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 symptoms. Among the healthy control individuals, the absolute value of LDH, CPK Creatine Kinase and CRP were determined in between the normal range, and in compare with patients with COVID-19 symptoms their values were smaller and, the P value was (P ＜0.05). All three biochemical parameters increased among patients with COVID-19 symptoms, but more significantly, steadily increase was observed only in LDH value in age above and under 40 years (284.43±10.29 and 321.23±16.32 U/L), and p-value was (0.0488). Male patients had higher levels of LDH (299.32±11.42 U/L), CPK Creatine Kinase (195.90±26.65 mg/L), and C-Reactive Protein (5.86±3.96 mg/L) in compared with the female patients. Our study suggested that among patients who have COVID 19 symptoms, increased LDH is the advised and helpful biochemical marker among routine panel for COVID-19 infection evaluation. Also, CRP levels were positively correlated with male patients when compared with the healthy control.
Last Year PDF Downloads
Mathew, D., Giles, J.R., Baxter, A.E., Oldridge, D.A., Greenplate, A.R., Wu, J.E., Alanio, C., Kuri-Cervantes, L., Pampena, M.B., D’Andrea, K. and Manne, S., 2020. Deep immune profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals distinct immunotypes with therapeutic implications. Science, 369(6508).
Saghazadeh, A. and Rezaei, N., 2020. Immune-epidemiological parameters of the novel coronavirus–a perspective. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, pp.1-6.
Henry, B.M., De Oliveira, M.H.S., Benoit, S., Plebani, M. and Lippi, G., 2020. Hematologic, biochemical and immune biomarker abnormalities associated with severe illness and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 58(7), pp.1021-1028.
Elshazli, R.M., Toraih, E.A., Elgaml, A., El-Mowafy, M., El-Mesery, M., Amin, M.N., Hussein, M.H., Killackey, M.T., Fawzy, M.S. and Kandil, E., 2020. Diagnostic and prognostic value of hematological and immunological markers in COVID-19 infection: A meta-analysis of 6320 patients. PloS one, 15(8), p.e0238160.
Juno, J.A., Tan, H.X., Lee, W.S., Reynaldi, A., Kelly, H.G., Wragg, K., Esterbauer, R., Kent, H.E., Batten, C.J., Mordant, F.L. and Gherardin, N.A., 2020. Humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell responses in recovered patients with COVID-19. Nature medicine, 26(9), pp.1428-1434.
He, R., Lu, Z., Zhang, L., Fan, T., Xiong, R., Shen, X., Feng, H., Meng, H., Lin, W., Jiang, W. and Geng, Q., 2020. The clinical course and its correlated immune status in COVID-19 pneumonia. Journal of Clinical Virology, p.104361.
Yuan, Y., Sun, C., Tang, X., Cheng, C., Mombaerts, L., Wang, M., Hu, T., Sun, C., Guo, Y., Li, X. and Xu, H., 2020. Development and validation of a prognostic risk score system for COVID-19 inpatients: A multi-center retrospective study in China.
Luo, M., Liu, J., Jiang, W., Yue, S., Liu, H. and Wei, S., 2020. IL-6 and CD8+ T cell counts combined are an early predictor of in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19. JCI insight, 5(13).
Kuri-Cervantes, L., Pampena, M.B., Meng, W., Rosenfeld, A.M., Ittner, C.A., Weisman, A.R., Agyekum, R.S., Mathew, D., Baxter, A.E., Vella, L.A. and Kuthuru, O., 2020. Comprehensive mapping of immune perturbations associated with severe COVID-19. Science immunology, 5(49).
Wu, M.Y., Yao, L., Wang, Y., Zhu, X.Y., Wang, X.F., Tang, P.J. and Chen, C., 2020. Clinical evaluation of potential usefulness of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. Respiratory Research, 21(1), pp.1-6.
Zhao, D., Yao, F., Wang, L., Zheng, L., Gao, Y., Ye, J., Guo, F., Zhao, H. and Gao, R., 2020. A comparative study on the clinical features of COVID-19 pneumonia to other pneumonias. Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Bastos, M.L., Tavaziva, G., Abidi, S.K., Campbell, J.R., Haraoui, L.P., Johnston, J.C., Lan, Z., Law, S., MacLean, E., Trajman, A. and Menzies, D., 2020. Diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for covid-19: systematic review and meta-analysis. bmj, 370.
Ling, W., 2020. C-reactive protein levels in the early stage of COVID-19. Medecine et maladies infectieuses.
Liu, F., Li, L., Xu, M., Wu, J., Luo, D., Zhu, Y., Li, B., Song, X. and Zhou, X., 2020. Prognostic value of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin in patients with COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Virology, p.104370.
Shaghaghi, S., Daskareh, M., Irannejad, M., Shaghaghi, M. and Kamel, I.R., 2020. Target-shaped combined halo and reversed-halo sign, an atypical chest CT finding in COVID-19. Clinical imaging, 69, pp.72-74.
Gholizadeh, P., Safari, R., Marofi, P., Zeinalzadeh, E., Pagliano, P., Ganbarov, K., Esposito, S., Khodadadi, E., Yousefi, M. and Kafil, H.S., 2020. Alteration of Liver Biomarkers in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Journal of inflammation research, 13, p.285.
Ali, F., Naqvi, S.A.S., Bismillah, M. and Wajid, N., 2016. Comparative analysis of biochemical parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic acute myocardial infarction patients. Indian heart journal, 68(3), pp.325-331.
Singhal, T., 2020. A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, pp.1-6.
Karimian, M., Jamshidbeigi, A., Badfar, G. and Azami, M., 2020. Laboratory findings in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv.
Palaiodimos, L., Kokkinidis, D.G., Li, W., Karamanis, D., Ognibene, J., Arora, S., Southern, W.N. and Mantzoros, C.S., 2020. Severe obesity, increasing age and male sex are independently associated with worse in-hospital outcomes, and higher in-hospital mortality, in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 in the Bronx, New York. Metabolism, 108, p.154262.
Lee, J.Y., Nam, B.H., Kim, M., Hwang, J., Kim, J.Y., Hyun, M., Kim, H.A. and Cho, C.H., 2020. A Risk Scoring System to Predict Progression to Severe Pneumonia in Patients with Covid-19.
Nouri-Vaskeh, M., Khalili, N., Sharifi, A., Behnam, P., Soroureddin, Z., Ade, E.A., Khalili, N., Fadavi, N. and Baradaran, B., 2020. Clinical Characteristics of Fatal Cases of COVID-19 in Tabriz, Iran: An Analysis of 111 Patients. Advanced Journal of Emergency Medicine.
Mehrabani, S., 2020. COVID-19 infection and children: A comprehensive review. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 11(1), p.157.
Yuan, X., Huang, W., Ye, B., Chen, C., Huang, R., Wu, F., Wei, Q., Zhang, W. and Hu, J., 2020. Changes of hematological and immunological parameters in COVID-19 patients. International journal of hematology, pp.1-7.
Erika, P., Mariachiara, A. and Federico, B., 2020. Exertional Dyspnoea in a Young Patient Discharged for COVID-19 Related Acute Respiratory Failure: What is Going on. Clin Case Rep Open Access, 3(2), p.146.
Mishra, A.K., Sahu, K.K., George, A.A. and Lal, A., 2020. A review of cardiac manifestations and predictors of outcome in patients with COVID–19. Heart & Lung.
How to Cite
Write scientific names with Italic fonts:
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a License Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
d. Authors hold the copyright and retain publishing right of articles without restrictions.